Hanukkah is a Jewish holiday celebrated for eight days and nights.
A hanukkiyah is a candelabrum with eight candleholders in a row, plus the all important ninth candleholder set a little above the others.
It's different from a menorah, which has seven branches and was used in the Temple before it was destroyed in 70 CE. A hanukkiyah is nevertheless a kind of menorah.
The hanukkiyah is used during the Jewish holiday of Hanukkah and commemorates the miracle of the oil. According to the Hanukkah story, once Jewish revolutionaries had retaken the Temple from the Syrians they wanted to rededicate it to God and restore its ritual purity.
Eight days worth of oil were needed to complete the ritual purification, but they were only able to find one day's worth of oil. They lit the menorah anyway and miraculously the oil lasted for eight full days.
Hanukkah resources for childminders at the Childminding Shop